info about music genres: Rap and Hip Hop
Urban is in
or having to do with cities, as distinct from rural
In terms of
music, urban music and urban radio are synonymous with the terms rap or hip
hop, because that type of music typically originates in urban areas. (In these
contexts the term "black music" has sometimes been used, and urban
serves as a race-neutral replacement.) Current examples of popular urban
musicians are Missy Elliott, Ja Rule, 50 Cent, Nelly, and Ludacris.
that is currently street, or hip is likely to find its way onto the urban
charts. Rap, hip hop, and also club, rhythm 'n' blues as well as jazz,
gospel/inspirational and ballads.
announcers tend to be the hippest announcers on the air and are often the
conduit whereby street slang finds its way into mainstream usage. Urban AC
stations (Urban AC stations often will not play
rap or hip-hop. They build their playlists in much the same manner as other
adult contemporary stations. These stations rely heavily on rhythm and blues
oldies and recurrents) use a more relaxed announcing style than their counterparts at
stations programmed for younger audiences. Urban
stations, targeting younger audiences, develop their playlists around whatever
is popular with urban audiences. These stations take a CHR-like approach to
rap, hip-hop, rhythm 'n' blues, and ballads.
Rapping began as a variation on the elements found in reggae, funk and dub music, mixed with influences from radio DJs. Also of influence were the works of The Last Poets and Gil Scott Heron and Bob Dylan's Subterranean
Homesick Blues (1965). The original rappers, or MCs (from "Master of
Ceremonies") would improvise rhymes over the beats created by the DJs.
Early raps were frequently merely a sequence of boasts, or attempts to upstage
the other MCs.
[origin: mid-1970s, New York City] is one of the elements of hip hop; it is a
form of rhyming lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a
musical backdrop of sampling, scratching and mixing by DJs. Originally rapping
was called MCing and was seen as supporting the DJ.
The first rap record was 1979's King Tim III by the Fatback Band (featuring the rapper
King Tim III). The Sugarhill Gang followed the same year with Rappers Delight, that became a major hit and is based on Chic's oft-sampled disco track "Good Times". The first rap hit by a non-black artist was Blondie's
"Rapture" in 1981.
Politics and rap
Descendents and influence
In the mid-1980s, rap became
increasingly politicized, through the works of Public Enemy, KRS One, and others, and tended to chronicle the black
urban experience. Gangsta
rap may be seen in this context of subversion, but is also seen by some as
the abandonment of a constructive message. The early 90's saw artists such as NWA and Ice-T facing massive controversy for their explosive
tales of murder, rebellion, and sex. This style of rap quickly became the most
popular, as rappers like Tupac
Shakur, Snoop Dogg, and Dr. Dre became mainstream
Rapping can be seen as one of the four elements of hip hop: MCing (rapping), DJing (mixing, cutting and
scratching), graffiti, and breakdancing. However, in the
course of rap's history, new musical styles developed that use rapping -
especially rapcore, also known as
rap/rock or rap/metal, first introduced by crossover pioneer Run-DMC's collaboration with Aerosmith in 1986. Some alternative rap has musically
very little to do with hip hop and rap music. Often consisting of bizarre
soundscapes and vivid lyrics, abstract hip-hop has developed, largely in the
Music outside of the United States has taken the rap style and blended it
with completely different elements. Japanese dance music, for example, often
uses rapping to complement or break up the singing parts, with lyrics containing
upbeat themes set to energetic rhythms and clean, warm synths. A new offshoot of
garage techno, dubbed Grime, has emerged
in Britain, featuring acts like Dizzee Rascal and Wiley.
The importance of rhyme
Undoubtedly, the most important element of rap lyrics is rhyme. In other forms of poetry, rhymes that span many
syllables are often considered whimsical but in hip hop, the ability to
construct raps with large sets of rhyming syllables is considered a sign of
intelligence and achievement. To accomplish rhymes of this sophistication,
rappers can use single rhyming words (intellectual/ineffectual) or they can use multiple
words whose constituent syllables rhyme (octoroon/Doctor Dooom). Rap lyrics often contain long series
of lines each of which rhyme with each other. Occasionally, entire songs are
composed in this fashion where all lines rhyme with each other. Of course, the
more intricate the rhymes are, the more abstract the song becomes. This is
because the more focus given to impressive rhyming, the harder it becomes to
In many traditional cultures there exist lyrical forms that could loosely be
described as rapping. Examples of these include:
- Chastushka in Russia
- Tsiattista in Cyprus
- Enka Slamta in Ethiopia
- Tassou in Senegal
originated in the mid-1970s in the South Bronx area of New York City. The rise
of rap in many ways parallels the birth of rock'n roll in the 1950s. Both
originated within the African American community and both were initially
recorded by small, independent record labels and marketed almost exclusively to
a black audience. In both cases, the new style gradually attracted white
musicans, a few of whom began performing it. For rock'n roll it was a white
American from Mississippi, Elvis Presley, who broke into the billboard magazine
popular music charts.
For rap it was a white group from New York, the Beastie
Boys. The release of their albums was one of the first two rap records to reach
the billboard top-ten list of popular hits. The other significant early rap
recording to reach the top-ten, "Walk This Way" (1986), was a
collaboration of the black rap group Run-DMC and the white hard-rock band
Soon after 1986, the use of the samples and declaimed vocal styles became widespread in popular music of both black and white performers, significantly altering previous notions of what constitutes a legitimate song, composition or musical instrument.
Hip hop is a cultural movement that began
amongst urban (primarily, but not entirely, African American) youth in New York
and has since spread around the world. The four main elements of hip-hop are
MCing, DJing, graffiti art, and breakdancing. The term has since come to be a
synonym for rap music tоo.
Hip Hop (Music)
Although hip-hop includes graffiti art, break dancing, and rap music, the name
connotes more than the sum of these parts. Hip-Hop is a means of creative
expression that gives voice to young, ethnic, urban populations.
music is related to the griots (pronounced "greeohs"), of West Africa, traveling singers and poets whose musical style is reminiscent of hip hop. True hip hop arose during the 1970s when block parties became common in new York City, espescially the Bronx. Block parties were usually accompanied by music, especially funk and soul music. The early DJs at block parties began isolating the percussion breaks to hit songs, realizing that these were the most dance-able and entertaining parts; this technique was then common in Jamaica and had spread via the substantial Jamaican immigrant community in New York City, especially the godfather of hip hop DJ Kool Herc.
- one of the earliest Jamaican dub musicians
Dub had arisen in Jamaica in 1960s due to the influence of American sailors and radio stations playing R&B. Large sound systems were set up to accommodate poor Jamaicans, who couldn't afford to buy records, and dub developed at the sound systems (refers to both the system and the parties that evolved around them). In Jamaica, dub music has diversified into genres like
ragga and dancehall.
By the end of the 1970s, hip hop music was beginning to become a major
commercial and artistic force and had spread throughout the United States.
During the 1980s and 1990s, hip hop gradually became mainstream (a transition
usually considered to have been completed in 1992) in the US and, to a lesser degree, worldwide. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip_hop_music
Herc was one of the most popular DJs in early 70s New York, playing at neighborhood parties (his first gig was on Sedgewick Avenue, Bronx), and he quickly switched from using reggae
records to funk, rock and disco, since the New York audience did not particularly like reggae. Performers spoke while the music played; these were originally called MCs (Master of Ceremonies or Mic Controller) and, later, rappers. These early rappers focused on introducing themselves and others
in the audience, with some improvisation and a simple four-count beat, along
with a simple chorus. Later MCs added more complex lyrics, often humorous, and
incorporated sexual themes.
Hip Hop artists
Unlike other female MCs who drop PC verses, Kim crashes through the rap-scapes with a rawness that is rare. She's honest in her explorations of sexual freedom, and - although she's been attacked by hip-hop conservatives for being too nasty - she flexes the female liberation that a generation of women fought for not so long ago. "I'm a very sexual person," insists Kim, "and what I'm revealing on my album is my personality and experiences."
In November of 1996, the world was introduced to Lil'
(real name is Kimberley Denise Jones).
Lil Kim realeased
her solo album "Hard Core", but still had some help from her pals Lil Cease, Biggie, and
Puffy. And then relatively unknown Jay-Z made a guest appearence on "Big
Momma Thang", just months after his own debut album. Commercially
successful tracks like "No Time" and "Crush On You"
propelled the album's success...
Lil' Kim is called the Madonna of hip hop.
Eminem himself remains the Great White Mystery of hip-hop, undeniably vastly skilled, hugely successful, amusing and perceptive, acerbic and personal, totally unique. He takes his own flaws and those of the white America whose hypocrisy he loathes and uses them to spark a self-immolating rage. His ascension as an talented MC leaving burning footprints in the cultural heritage of nowdays. Eminem embodies the similarities between punk and hip-hop; the need to find your own voice and speak out against the smothering uniformity that angers you.
Others: Jay-Z, Mos Def, Missy Elliot, Talib Kweli,
Read more about Hip-Hop!
Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by
United Kingdom dance
magazine Mixmag, to describe a
musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of England's hip hop and house scenes. Characterized by a reliance on breakbeats and a sample-heavy
sound pioneered by Coldcut's remix of
Eric B. &
Rakim's "Paid in Full", trip hop gained notice via popular artists such as
Portishead, Massive Attack, Tricky, and rock-influenced sound groups
such as Ruby, California's
DJ Shadow, and the UK's Howie B. Londoners Morcheeba and Glideascope are also often associated with this
The Bristol sound was the name given to a number of bands from Bristol, England, in the 1990s.
These bands spawned the musican genre trip-hop,
though many of the bands shunned this name when other British and international
bands imitated the style and preferred not to distinguish it from hip-hop.
It is characterised by a slow, spaced-out hip-hop sound that a number of artists in the early and mid 1990s made synonymous with the city.
Beth Gibbons, Portishead
These artists can include the aforementioned original Bristolians Massive Attack, Portishead and Tricky and
others such as Way Out
West, Smith and Mighty
and The Wild Bunch.
Trip-hop is known for its moody, dark, yet lyrical sound.
The trip-hop sound is deeply reliant upon jazz samples, usually taken from
old vinyl jazz records. This kind of reliance on sampling has changed the way
record labels deal with clearing samples for use in other people's tracks.
Trip-hop tracks often sample Rhodes pianos, saxophones, trumpets, and flutes, and develops in parallel to hip hop, each
inspiring the other.
Trip-hop production is historically lo-fi, relying on analog recording equipment and
instrumentation for an ambience. Portishead, for example, record their material to
old tape from real instruments, and then sample their recordings rather than
recording their instruments directly to a track. They also tend to put their
drums through considerable compression.
Later, artists such as Glideascope have taken inspiration from many
additional sources including world and orchestral influences.-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trip_hop